Coronavirus: Frequently asked questions and useful organisations

Alzheimer’s Society advice and guidence original source here

Here are answers to some commonly-asked questions (FAQs) from people affected by dementia, as well as a list of organisations that can provide information and advice during the coronavirus pandemic.

Alzheimer’s Society is supporting people affected by dementia through the coronavirus pandemic, and Rapid Fire Supplies has been providing COVID-19 packs to help their staff and volunteers on the frontline.

How can I stop someone with dementia from leaving our house?

This will require some trial and error to see what works. It may help to develop a routine of activities that you can both enjoy in the house and garden.
When you can leave the house for exercise, make this time as stimulating as possible. Talk through what you see, hear and smell when you’re out.

If the person stills wants to leave the house at other times, try to find out why – this may be due to something you’re unaware of. You might be able to find other ways of giving them what they need. For example, if they say they need fresh air, consider sitting outside for lunch or open a window if it’s safe to do so.

Explain why they shouldn’t leave the house in a variety of ways. This could be gently reinforced by friends and neighbours. Communicate in a way so that they don’t feel ‘told off’ and explain that this is something we’re all doing together.

If there’s a time that they often want to leave the house, try and distract them round about then. For example, if they normally go shopping around 10am, start activities just before then.

If the person still insists on going out, encourage handwashing before and after leaving the house. If you are able, go with them – you may be able to guide them home quicker or ensure they keep a safe distance (at least two metres or three steps) from others.

You may also wish to look into the Herbert Protocol or helpcards. These could help if the person gets lost or if they are stopped by police and can’t say why they are outside. If they refuse to stay in the house and are at serious risk – for example, if they are in a group that should be shielding, discuss your concerns with their local authority. For more details, see our information on Walking about.

Remember that these approaches may not work for everyone and you can only support them to follow the rules. As much as you want to keep everyone safe, you can only do your best.

The person I care for is in denial about coronavirus. What can I do?

Denial is a common psychological reaction. It can help someone who is trying to cope with a difficult situation that may otherwise make them feel afraid, depressed, or worried. It’s not a deliberate attempt to deny reality – it is likely that the person isn’t even aware they are in denial.

If someone doesn’t acknowledge what is happening, there is usually little point in repeating the same information in the same way. Focus on supporting them to follow the important rules to keep them and others safe. They don’t necessarily need to understand everything about coronavirus to make changes, particularly about handwashing, not going out or having visitors.

It might help to use different ways to explain the situation in a way that the person is more likely to take on board. For example, talk about the ‘new government rules’ or ‘what the doctors have said’. Sometimes people can be more willing to accept advice from certain family members, friends or professionals. Ask their full support network – friends, family members and neighbours – to gently reinforce prompts about staying at home when they see or speak to them.

People with dementia often rely on set routines; if you know what time they are most active or normally leave the house then focus your efforts around these times. Consider putting up notes or posters to remind the person not to go out.

People with dementia can lack confidence. They may feel that the reason they have to follow these rules is because they aren’t as capable as they once were. Although keeping someone safe can be stressful, try to communicate in a way where they don’t feel they have been ‘told off’ or told what to do. Reassure them that this is something we all face together and it’s not something specific to them. They are not alone.

Are people with dementia at higher risk of catching coronavirus?

There is still so much unknown about coronavirus and we’re still learning about it. So unfortunately this is a question that we don’t yet have a definite answer to.

A person living with dementia who has memory problems or confusion may struggle with the rules and restrictions around coronavirus. This includes the important actions we’re all taking to reduce the risk of infection, like frequent handwashing or social distancing when outside. This may mean that, without help to stay safe, they are a bit more likely to be infected with the virus.

For a person with dementia in a care home, evidence suggests that they are at higher risk of getting coronavirus. This is partly because frailer older people have weaker immune systems that are less able to fight off infections. Many care homes have sadly become infected because of the difficulty in keeping coronavirus out. The person may catch coronavirus from another resident, from a care worker or from a communal surface with virus on it.

It has been widely publicised that many care homes have had difficulty getting enough personal protective equipment (PPE) for staff and, more recently, getting both residents and staff tested for coronavirus. Talk to the care home about any concerns you have and how you can support the person from a distance.

Does low vitamin D raise the risk of coronavirus?

Scientists don’t yet have the answer. We know vitamin D is needed for healthy bones and muscles. Whether it also fights off coronavirus is less certain. It matters because people make very different levels of vitamin D in their bodies.

We make vitamin D when we get sunlight on our skin. People who are outside less – such as those who are shielding or older people living in care homes – will not make as much. People with dark skin make vitamin D more slowly even when outside, and so have lower vitamin D levels too.

People with high melanin (pigment in their skin) are among those more likely to get severe COVID-19 disease if they catch coronavirus. It’s important to know whether low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of more severe COVID-19 symptoms in people of African, African-Caribbean and south Asian background.

Researchers have looked at coronavirus around the world and found low vitamin D levels in countries with more severe COVID-19. Studies of hospital patients confirm this. The studies do not prove that low vitamin D leads to more severe COVID-19.

You can increase your vitamin D levels by taking in more in your diet, or taking a tablet of vitamin D (supplement). Too much vitamin D can be harmful, so talk to your doctor if you’re thinking of taking a vitamin supplement.

Before coronavirus, the NHS recommended vitamin D supplements for adults who are not often outdoors, or those with dark skin. This was to make sure they were getting enough vitamin D to support healthy bones and muscles. So if you’re in a higher-risk group for vitamin D deficiency, you may already be taking extra. It’s not clear whether extra vitamin D will help fight off the virus. 

Where can I find out about activities to keep someone with dementia from getting bored or frustrated?

Think about the activities the person has always enjoyed and look at ways to adapt these. Even when it’s not possible to go out and meet up with other people, there are ways of keeping someone active and engaged with activities they enjoy.

These include suggestions in and around the home as well as using digital technology and online activities. Take a look at our own suggestions for activities.

I’m staying at home and now worried about getting food in. What should I do?

Many supermarkets are offering special arrangements for older and vulnerable people. This includes priority booking for food delivery slots – although these are very busy. Check individual supermarkets’ websites or ask someone else to help you or do this for you. Many also offer a ‘click and collect’ option online, which could be an option if there is someone (family member, friend or neighbour) who could pick up your order for you. You could call your local supermarket to find out more about this.

Local grocers and convenience shops may also give priority to vulnerable people in their area or be able to arrange deliveries. You could try giving them a call.

See what community volunteer groups are running in your area. These could be set up by your parish council, local churches (or other faith communities) or a group of local people. They will be able to help with essentials for vulnerable people. To find schemes in your local area visit Neighbourhood WatchCOVID-19 Mutual Aid UK or contact your local authority.

If someone offers to help you, they should do this free of charge. You should not be asked for any money. You can find more information about spotting the signs of COVID-19 scams.

I have dementia, so what happens if my wife gets coronavirus?

If your wife gets symptoms, you must both self-isolate (stay at home, take special precautions and not let anyone visit you). This also means neither of you should visit the shops or pharmacy. When you need something, such as food, essential provisions or medicine, you should order them by phone, online or ask someone else to drop them off at your home.

This NHS guidance page has a section on protecting yourself if you are considered ‘vulnerable’, for example aged over 70, and living with someone who has symptoms.

If your wife provides essential care for you, it can be useful to put a plan in place with friends and family, in case she becomes unwell. If you need help with activities (such as washing, dressing or eating and drinking) and there is no one else who can provide this, then contact your local authority.

If you are considered ‘extremely vulnerable’ due to another health condition (as well as dementia), you should have been contacted by your GP and given a number to call for help. The NHS has listed anyone who counts as ‘extremely vulnerable’ and what help is available. You can also register for help you may need including help with food, shopping deliveries and additional care.

Can I still make a Lasting power of attorney during lockdown?

Yes! There are many things that we can’t do during lockdown but this is something you can do. You may find it reassuring to get a Lasting power of attorney (LPA) organised so that you know it’s sorted. Family members and others may also have more time during the lockdown period to support you with the process.

We have detailed information about Lasting powers of attorney
Making an LPA involves getting signatures and you may find this more difficult because of social distancing restrictions.

The Office of the Public Guardian (OPG) is the government team that deals with LPAs. They have produced some useful guidance about how some of these difficulties can be overcome.

For more information about how to make an online or paper LPA, visit the OPG website or call them on 0300 456 0300
If you don’t have access to the internet or can’t complete the forms online, we have a free digital assistance service to help you. Our trained volunteers will fill in the LPA forms for you using the OPG online tool. They can’t offer legal advice. 

Alzheimer’s Society digital assistance service continues to operate during the pandemic. Call the Alzheimer’s Society support line on 0333 150 3456 for more details.

To make an LPA you will need to be able to make your own decisions (have mental capacity). This is very important. So if you want to make an LPA and are beginning to struggle with making decisions, the sooner you do so the better. 

Practical support and guidance

Carers UK 

Advice on creating an emergency plan for family carers.  

Citizens Advice 

Citizens Advice provides free, independent, confidential and impartial advice to everyone on their rights and responsibilities. To find your nearest Citizens Advice, look in the phone book, ask at your local library or look on the website. Opening times vary. 

The Silver Line

A Helpline that offers information, friendship and advice. Callers can be linked to local groups and services and offer regular friendship calls. 

Tel: 0800 4 70 80 90 – open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week 

UK Government

UK Government website on coronavirus (COVID-19) and what people need to do. 

Universal Credit – Government pages 

Information on benefits and coronavirus. 

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